Growth in order inflows reported an increase in demand for manufactured goods, resulting in increased production and a higher employment rate to meet increases in demand. Growth in the maquiladora and manufacturing industries reached 4.7% in August 2016.  The United States accounts for three-quarters of exports and imports. The kick-off of a North American free trade area began with U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who made the idea part of his 1980 presidential campaign. After the signing of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement in 1988, the governments of U.S. President George H.W. Bush, Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney agreed to negotiate nafta. Both submitted the agreement for ratification in their respective capitals in December 1992, but NAFTA faced considerable opposition in both the United States and Canada. The three countries ratified NAFTA in 1993 following the addition of two related agreements, the North American Worker Cooperation Agreement (NAALC) and the North American Environmental Cooperation Agreement (NAAEC). Chapter 19 of NAFTA was a trade litigation mechanism that subjects anti-dumping and compensatory tariff (AD/CVD) rules to binational panel review or conventional judicial review.  In the United States, for example, review of decisions by authorities imposing anti-dumping and countervailing duties is generally referred to the U.S.
International Court of Commerce, a Section III court. However, the NAFTA parties were given the opportunity to appeal decisions against binational bodies made up of five citizens of the two NAFTA countries.  Participants were generally lawyers with experience in international commercial law. Since NAFTA did not contain physical provisions for AD/CVD, the panel was tasked with determining whether the final decisions of the agencies to which AD/CVD were parties were consistent with domestic national law. Chapter 19 was an anomaly in international dispute resolution because it did not apply international law, but required a body made up of individuals from many countries to review the application of a country`s domestic law. [Citation required] The debate on the impact of NAFTA on its signatory countries continues. While the United States, Canada and Mexico have experienced economic growth, higher wages and stronger trade since NAFTA, experts disagree on the extent to which the agreement has actually contributed to these benefits, if at all, to manufacturing employment, immigration and consumer goods prices. The results are difficult to isolate and other important developments have occurred on the continent and around the world over the past quarter century. On May 18, 2017, the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) sent Congress a 90-day notice of his intention to begin talks with Canada and Mexico to renegotiate NAFTA, as required by the Trade Promotion Authority (P.L.).